Interview-Alternate Perceptions Magazine, November 2016
An Interview with:
Krsanna Duran on America's Mother Culture
by: Brent Raynes
Brent Raynes: Robert K.G. Temple, the well-known author of The Sirius Mystery, wrote awhile back in Second Look magazine (Nov.-Dec. 1979) an article on ancient magnetism. He described how a Prof. Vincent Malmstrom of Dartmouth had discovered how Olmec statues at Izapa had magnetic poles located at their navels and right temple areas. In fact, here's a link: Robert-temple.com/articles/SecondLook_OlmecMagnetism.pdf. Temple expressed "could the ancient Izapans/Olmec possibly have known of the magnetism in the human temple?"
Krsanna Duran: The “poles” that Vincent Malmstrom observed are two among twenty points portrayed in the codex most closely associated with Teotihuacan, the Borgia Codex. A drawing made after the codex was removed from Mexico and sent to Europe, the Kingsborough drawing (below), shows the points where body-soul interactions take place.
Magnets and acupuncture were used in Chinese medicine three millennia ago, and the Chinese also knew about zero at an early date. The Chinese report they discovered and lived in America 3,300 years ago. Understanding of magnetism is necessary for any builder to survey an eight-square-mile complex before construction with the precision displayed at Teotihuacan. The range of knowledge implicit in Teotihuacan easily included magnetism.
With no precedent in EurAmerica, the figure annotated with glyphs in ancient America has long puzzled scholars. I showed the drawing to a naturopath, a Chinese doctor, and a Hawaiian Huna. Both the Chinese doctor and Huna said areas connected to glyphs are points where the soul enters and leaves the body. The cluster of points around the head, in fact, approximates areas that three-time near death experiencer Dannion Brinkley emphasized in a lecture on near death. Although the naturopath, a modern American doctor, had no idea what the points were, her response highlighted the divide between America’s ancient and modern cultures. Bridging the divide invokes the deepest roots of evolving humanity and reconciliation of the mortal and immortal human, body and soul illustrated in the Borgia Codex. In the area where the codex was found, architecture at Teotihuacan compares to the Temple of Man in Egypt in concept.
Metric relationships Robert K.G. Temple found between pyramids on the Giza Plateau and Vincent Malmstrom’s geography of the sacred are fundamental in Teotihuacan’s layout. Malmstrom was an historical geographer who interpreted ancient sites from geographical perspectives, i.e., what observers saw within geographies and archaeology. Powers of observation were keenly developed in nomadic ancient peoples who survived by their wits without reading and writing. This is the way my UFO mentors instructed me to understand Teotihuacan in 1996, fifteen years before I read Malmstrom. He discovered the only confirmed astronomical alignment at Teotihuacan was the meridian of the setting sun on August 11 of each year, which is the anniversary of the long count that began August 11, 3114 BCE. I cite this humanist geographer in my book, Web of Life and Cosmos: Human and Bigfoot Star Ancestors.
Babylonian texts reported sages who built walled cities and laid the foundations for civilization after a series of floods and war anciently destroyed advanced civilizations of Atlantis and Lemuria. The Greek Oannes that Robert K.G. Temple wrote about in The Sirius Mystery was the first of seven sages that the Mesopotamian god Enki sent with the gifts of civilization for humanity. Temple observed he always carried a satchel like one the Olmec holds (See the below image of the Feathered Serpent). Similar satchels were also carved at Gobekli Tepe in Turkey. Neither organic form nor geometrically significant, the satchels with slight variations at ancient sites that serve as repositories of advanced knowledge appear to be emblems for sages who brought the gifts of civilization that Enki dispatched.
With Negroid features and Asiatic eyes, the Olmec’s origin remains an open question. They appeared in Mexico as mysteriously as they disappeared. Olmec inhabited the length and breadth of Mexico over a period of at least 3,000 years, yet the first excavation of their sites was in 1938. The date of their departure from Mexico is not known, but the first century BCE is a reasonable estimate based on what is presently known. Some sites may have been abandoned earlier as environmental conditions changed. The Mexico Valley is highly volcanic and is periodically uninhabitable for centuries. A circular pyramid covered in lava at Cuicuilco near Teotihuacan with intermittent occupations was dated to 2600 BCE before its basement construction was unearthed (Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, Charles Hapgood). Frank Water reported a circular Olmec pyramid with petals (The Coming Sixth World of Consciousness: The Mexico Mystique).
The Olmec were long-time inhabitants of Mexico when construction of Teotihuacan started circa 200 BCE. The oldest pyramid complex in Mexico, Teotihuacan was continuously inhabited with no major declines between 200 BCE and 800 CE, long after the Olmec left Mexico. The 800 years between the Olmec’s departure and Teotihuacan’s abandonment does not exclude an Olmec ancestry in its origin and early construction. Existing pyramids at Teotihuacan were built over smaller pyramids that have not yet been dated and are obviously older than what has been presently excavated. Volcanic activity that covered Cuicuilco in lava that dictated dates it could be occupied also influenced nearby Teotihuacan. Knowledge, skills, and abilities of Teotihuacan’s construction and culture provide a measure for extant conditions during the Olmec’s later presence in Mexico.
When anthropologist Rene Million did an extensive aerial survey in the 1960s, he found that the layout of the city was so precise that it could only have been planned before constructed. In contrast, Paris in France was first founded as a Celtic settlement named Parisii circa 225 BCE, in the same century as Teotihuacan. It expanded with no central design into a sprawling metropolis in spurts to accommodate conquests and new populations. As a rule of thumb, urban centers sprawl to meet the needs of inhabitants as they grow. In its early life, Oklahoma City was a tent after a land run in 1889 with no rule of order, but as occupants put down roots a survey of the city was done by two survey teams for expediency. Each team started on opposite sides of the city, and when they met in the middle the two sets of streets didn’t match. Drivers had to zig zag half a block in the center of town to continue on the same street near the capital. When oil was discovered under the capital building, Oklahomans drilled at an angle to get it from beneath the building. People do what they need to do to make their cities work. Teotihuacan was different.
The eight square miles of the Teotihuacan, the oldest pyramid complex in Mexico, were so precisely laid out that Million concluded it was planned before construction started. Bear in mind that initial construction of the pyramids began circa 200 BCE when volcanic activity made the Mexico Valley largely uninhabitable. The larger population moved to the complex by 200 CE, 400 years later, when volcanic eruptions abated. In a sparsely populated volcanic valley, somebody with the capability of precisely surveying an eight-square-mile pyramid complex planned the largest urban center in the Americas 400 years before a large population of nomadic Native Americans inhabited it. In 1325, more than 1,000 years after Teotihuacan was built, the Aztecs were the last large wave of nomads to enter the Mexico Valley.
Incense burners produced at Teotihuacan were traded throughout Mexico and into Central and North America, where Teotihuacanos exerted strong hegemony among tribes. A mural in the complex depicts the mother goddess with spiders dangling from a tree of life, much like the Hopi describe. Teotihuacanos established an embassy in Guatemala. And a migration of Toltecs from the Teotihuacan area exported its culture to the Mayan center at Chichen Itza.
After explaining the geometry of five interpenetrated tetrahedra as the underlying geometry of ancient America’s calendar, which I developed as the TimeStar, corresponding with the 13:20 ratio of the twenty Tzolkin glyphs numbered 0 to 19 and the thirteen dot-bar numbers, my UFO mentors awakened me in 1996 at 4 a.m. one morning to talk about Teotihuacan. I knew very little about the inner structure of the complex at the time, but they said if I would find the measurements of the pyramids they would explain how they represent the brain. “Another foray in the ancient world?” I wondered before going back to sleep. But, after a few days I got curious about the measurements and found them.
Catholics stripped facades from the pyramids and central avenue to build cathedrals, destroying any information that might have been on them. But a portion of the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent’s original facade had been protected by a small structure, “adosado,” added to its front. Removal of the adosado during excavation revealed beautifully preserved heads on the façade (shown below). A chamber beneath the Feathered Serpent’s pyramid was opened in 2013 with the expectation it was used for burials. To the enormous surprise of scholars, a number of balls covered in pyrite and various magnetic materials were found with a crystal mask in the chamber with walls also covered in magnetic materials. Professor emeritus at Arizona State University George Cowgill said he had never seen anything like it, but speculated the chamber was probably used for ritual of some kind. The chamber and tunnels to it had been built in early construction at Teotihuacan and then deliberately closed circa 200 CE, when the larger population began moving into the complex. It had been so successfully blocked that archaeologists had worked on a plan for several years to enter the tunnels without destroying them using a robot.
The central avenue divided the complex into two equal east-west divisions between the Feathered Serpent’s pyramid in the south and the moon pyramid in the north. All civic and ritual centers, the communication hub of the complex, were clustered along the central avenue that compares to the bundle of nerves in the corpus callosum that connects the left and right brain hemispheres, with residential areas distanced from the central avenue on a par with memory centers in the brain. And like the frontal lobes of the brain, the newer adosados were built in front of the older pyramids first constructed. The progression of pyramid construction paralleled development of the brain over time.
In addition to the layout, pyramids, and symbols, glyphs at the pyramid center most closely resembling Teotihuacan at Chichen Itza featured heads depicting evolutionary development of modern humans with uncanny accuracy. The glyph entitled “Human” is clearly a Homo sapiens skull while “Death” closely resembles the extinct Homo heidelbergensis (Heidelberg Man), an ancestor of Homo sapiens and modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). The first fragment for this species was discovered near Heidelberg, Germany in 1907. Modern humans are the child species of numerous extinct species that have appeared and eventually disappeared, leaving child species to bring modern humanity to its present evolutionary state.
Brent Raynes: So Teotihuacan's layout was proven to be aligned with magnetic north then?
Krsanna Duran: Magnetic materials covering the walls and artifacts that included a carved crystal mask in a chamber that had been closed since 200 CE that connect important clues about Teotihuacan: Early builders were familiar with magnetism and used it in ritual, the best explanation for the mysterious discoveries in the chamber. Moreover, they carved crystal at an early date as the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull indicates.
Magnetic north never holds perfectly still for anyone. It will dance around a primary locus, which was Hudson Bay before 1994 when it began rapidly moving towards Siberia. The central avenue is oriented 15.25 degrees east of true north, which points to old magnetic north at Hudson Bay. A former Marine navigator calculated geographical coordinates for the location 15.25 degrees east of true north from Teotihuacan. It’s a straight-forward calculation. Since magnetic north continually moves at greater and lesser speeds, modern magnetic north has no bearing on Teotihuacan’s alignment except for its relationship to a 1993 crop circle in Washington State 2,160 miles from the pyramid complex.
Head on the left was the Feathered Serpent’s debut with a full collar of feathers in Mexico. On the right, the red arrow points to a pyramid-shaped cranium with the frontal lobe positions marked with two rings that meet in the middle of the brow over the location of the third eye in esoteric traditions. The yellow arrow points to the eyes. Orifices on both heads were anciently filled with precious and semi-precious gems. Early archaeologists identified this figure as the Rain God, Tlaloc, because of Caribbean shells set into waves despite its lack of resemblance to other images of Tlaloc. Teotihuacan is in central Mexico far from the Caribbean but resembles the layout of sunken pyramids on Cuba’s coast surveyed in 2000. Professor Esther Pasztory addresses the conundrum in her book, Teotihuacan: An Experiment in Living.
The precision of Teotihuacan’s initial survey was still evident in an aerial survey 2,000 years later in the ‘60s. Surveying the many streets and sectors in the eight square miles of the complex so precisely that it is still evident two millennia is impossible with rope and deer antlers. This yields another parallel with the perfectly leveled base for the Great Pyramid’s thirteen-acre foundation. This does not accidentally occur in nature and can only be accomplished modernly with lasers, possibly with satellite survey. I mention satellite survey because that’s what a smart builder with advanced technology would probably use if the resources were available.
Architects and engineers for Teotihuacan, Great Pyramid or Stonehenge were not necessarily the laborers who put each stone into place. Helena Blavatsky wrote that primitive peoples were prepared for writing and reading by doing great stone works, such as the Great Pyramid. But primitive workers learning masonry were not architects and engineers.
Brent Raynes: Temple noted how, according to a Russian report in the early 1960s, that it was stated that a horseshoe magnet placed at certain brain sites could alter hypnotic states of consciousness. Of course, after the confirmed discovery of magnetites in the human brain around 1993, I believe, and the work that Dr. Michael Persinger and others have been doing about the potential effects of magnetic fields on consciousness, what ancient humankind may have known on the subject becomes all the more intriguing. I know that you have written, and shown an illustration, of a large stone Olmec Head on display at the San Lorenzo Museum in Teotihuacan that you felt showed the brain hemispheres and the connecting corpus callosum from a topographical perspective.
In conjunction with the Olmec statues with magnetites, your reference is certainly thought-provoking. However, in examining Olmec statue heads online they appear to bear ornaments, with one that appears to be braided hair. How certain can we be that the Olmec statue head that you cite isn't simply decorative, perhaps symbolic designs instead of the portrayal of brain hemispheres and a corpus callosum?
Krsanna Duran: Designs on Olmec heads are definitely symbolic and deal with a range of issues from religion (ritual) to athletics. A symbol represents or stands for something else, especially a material object representing something abstract. Among the virtues of symbols is that they invoke intuition and abstract reasoning cherished in Native America. The iconic writing system used in ancient America develops discernment of contextual inflection and conceptual thinking. Native American children reared in their traditional culture in the 1960s had the highest abstract reasoning abilities of any ethnic group when starting kindergarten. After six years in Eurocentric schools the same children tested on a par with other ethnic groups. The capacities for abstract reasoning are in their culture.
With all respect due for European people, efforts to strip Native American culture from America started with the Vatican’s doctrine of discovery that Columbus brought to the Western hemisphere. The doctrine of discovery dictated an explorer must prove that no other civilization had existed in a land in order to claim ownership of it. In less than 100 years after “discovered” America in 1492, in 1562 the Catholic Cardinal of the Yucatan, Diego de Landa, burned thousands of native almanacs, codices, and images, obliterating much of the civilizing knowledge of Mexico. This rendered EuroAmericans profoundly ignorant of America’s mother culture and a dwindling historical memory among Native Americans. It was a perfect storm of cultural genocide.
Diversity and individualism were central to ancient America’s culture, and tribes routinely stylized calendar glyphs and dates to suit tribal identity with no central authority that enforced rules. In contrast, Rome enforced a single interpretation of Biblical scriptures with pain of death and imprisonment. Poor old Galileo had it bad when Rome imprisoned him for life for daring to say the Earth orbited around the Sun in violation of scripture. This affected the way Europe developed with highly structured organization and strict rules. The Nazis kept impeccable records of the people sent to concentration camps. There were neither central authority nor Nazis in ancient America. Europeans had little, if any, conceptual model for understanding what they found in Native America, up to and including the Maya’s calendar and 2012 end of the long count with its anniversary memorialized in the Feathered Serpent’s initiation center at Teotihuacan.
“Human” glyph drawn by 1000 CE at Chichen Itza, where Teotihuacano architecture co-exists side-by side with Mayan pyramids, accurately depicts Homo sapiens skull.
“Death” glyph strongly resembles the extinct Homo heidelbergensis (Heidelberg Man) in correct sequence as the dead ancestor of modern humans. Magnetic materials covering walls and objects that included a crystal mask in a long-closed chamber at Teotihuacan signal Teotihuacan’s approach to ritual. The stunning anatomy displayed in the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull was sculpted from crystal taken from the area of Teotihuacan, where crystal was commonly carved. The skull “just happened” to be under an altar in temple ruins at Belize in 1924 when the young daughter of explorer F.A. Mitchell-Hedges, Anna, “found” it. In Central America, the Maya at Belize carved obsidian but not crystal. How and why the exquisite anatomy carved in crystal from central Mexico was taken to Belize may never be known, but after seeing the results of Hewlett-Packard’s study of the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull with crystal from Teotihuacan, she never allowed another study of it. The technology to produce it does not exist today. The skull is a truly out-of-place artifact associated with Teotihuacan in an unknown way.
Achieving certainty is a highly personal process of knowing, understanding, and responsibility for one’s thinking. This is especially true with art. While I cannot entitle you with certainty, I can point out that science, religion, and art are not mutually exclusive. All three can be present in one piece of work. Elements of the brain’s hemispheres and corpus callosum are carved in consistent and repeated patterns with correct placement and proportions, which shows intent in contrast to random cuts. I have shown that knowledge of skulls of both modern humans and their ancestors existed and were correctly named in Mexico at least 1,000 years before Eurocentric sciences were able to do the same thing. Certainty is for the individual to find.
Brent Raynes: Do you feel that the Olmec culture, and others sharing similar features and characteristics, may be connected with ancient influences brought upon them from extraterrestrial visitors?
Krsanna Duran: All humans are influenced by ancient extraterrestrials. Evidence of advanced technology and vanished civilizations exist around the globe that point to extraterrestrial presences in a variety of styles and sizes. When we were younger, humans believed they were gods. The most generous and beneficent taught us how to find the spirit of creation for true power. Others wanted us to look to them for power they distributed to mold the human mind, while some just needed supplies on their trade routes.
Extraterrestrials that most influenced us worked in cultures they established and worked with in Lemuria, Atlantis, and Mesopotamia. In Other Tongues, Other Flesh, George Hunt Williamson wrote about a solar language spoken throughout the solar system. Several studies have found a mother language was spoken throughout Europe and Asia 15,000 years ago that has now disappeared but is still detectable in basic words universally spoken, such as “mother” and “father.” Although extraterrestrials shared an extraplanetary worldview and science, each was different and those differences still influence the culture of “East” versus “West,” for example. On the more profound level of the collective unconscious, extraterrestrial ancestors deeply influence our archetypes.
Olmec knowledge paralleled that of Egypt, Crete, and Phoenicia, which were Lemurian in nature. Organized civilization, on a par with precise surveying and building of Teotihuacan, is necessary to sustain advanced culture. The great floods destroyed much of the culture extraterrestrial parents endowed us, but we are beginning to get a handle on the basics we need to master.
The Babylonians reported that divine (extraterrestrial) sages had educated humans before the floods but had done something that angered Enki. After the floods Enki sent human sages. Since we’re on the subject, it looks to me like Enki distances from Enlil at the time the floods were planned in Genesis 6, and the sons of God in that verse who parented children with humans rebelled to save their children (Nephilim) and humanity. Mention of Enki was scarcer and scarcer in Mesopotamia after the floods in the same period reports that his abode, the Abzu, was under water. Enki’s domain had originally been in South Africa when he came to this planet to mine gold.This suggests that Enki, the scientists he headed, and their children possibly joined with Hyperboreans based under the Arctic, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus. The Babylonian Enuma Elish described an earlier rebellion of scientists against Enlil, which resulted in the decision to create “workers” preceding creation of the Adam and Eve hybrids. Moreover, it is probable that the chief scientist, Enki, would have caught wind that scientists working under his leadership were at least thinking of rebellion. Enki and his brother Enlil frequently disagreed over the treatment of humans, and I am inclined to suspect that Enki was capable of siding with the scientists. According to my contacts, many extraterrestrials who had remained on the Earth departed when Crete collapsed in the second millennium BCE. This date is specific for my Arcturian contacts who founded Lemuria and later joined with the Hyperborean coalition of parent races in the Arctic. They once asked me when I thought they had left the Earth, and I said it was when Crete collapsed and the Greeks took up with Zeus. They said, “You’re right,” and then left.
Brent Raynes: Former astronaut Gordon Cooper had also gone on record as having seen UFOs and been a believer. Was this possibly part of the reason for his own deep interest in the ancient Olmec civilization?
Krsanna Duran: One thing that’s certain about Gordon Cooper is that he was intent on speaking truth as he understood it about the Olmec, which he got into print with his autobiography. I never had the opportunity to talk to him about it, but I sense a fellowship among astronauts who saw and knew things that ordinary folk did not share. Cooper seemed to extend camaraderie to the Olmec in his sentiment about them.
While working for NASA, Cooper dived for artifacts on a now-sunken island the Olmec had inhabited. Personally handling their artifacts, Cooper reported the Olmec’s celestial navigation symbols were astonishing. They used the same celestial navigation symbols as those in Crete and Egypt in the same period, or 5,000 years ago. Cooper posited the Olmec would not have had sophisticated celestial navigation symbols if they did not use them.
The Egyptians and Olmec both venerated a winged serpent, known as Wadjet in Egypt and the Feathered Serpent (Quetzalcoatl) in Mexico. Very anciently the serpent represented the Milky Way: “The serpent, when forming a ring with its tail in its mouth, is a clear and widespread symbol of the "All-in-All", the totality of existence, infinity, and the cyclic nature of the cosmos. The most well-known version of this is the Aegypto-Greek Ourobouros. It is believed to have been inspired by the Milky Way, as some ancient texts refer to a serpent of light residing in the heavens. The Ancient Egyptians associated it with Wadjet, one of their oldest deities as well as another aspect, Hathor.”
Flight of a bird along the visible Milky Way serpent would have been a simple but efficacious explanation of extraterrestrial travel for early humans in Native America and Egypt. No compelling evidence shows that either Sumerians or Atlanteans built the Great Pyramid. Zecharia Sitchin reported that he found no mention of the Great Pyramid in Sumerian texts until after it was built and war for control of it started. In Plato’s lengthy physical description of Atlantis, he didn’t mention a single pyramid. Plato studied in Africa’s mystery schools and was certainly aware of the Great Pyramid.
I hold the Olmec in high regard as well and feel a sense of camaraderie with their efforts to inform their fellow humans. The Olmec were humans with star-high vision.
Brent Raynes: Krsanna, what is the history that makes the pyramid complex at Teotihuacan American's mother culture?
Krsanna Duran: It's the oldest pyramid complex in this region of America. The calendar matrix the Maya later adopted was first memorialized there. The meridian of the setting sun on the anniversary of the Long Count's beginning on August 13, 3114 BCE is the only astronomical alignment in the pyramid complex. Construction of the existing pyramids was started about 200 BCE, and the Pyramid of the Sun, the largest pyramid in the complex was built over an older pyramid that has never been excavated to find its date of construction. Mexico is the gateway between North and Central America, and Teotihuacan influence extended into North America and Central America.
Brent Raynes: Who built the pyramid complex?
Krsanna Duran: The builders have never been identified. After building the largest pyramid complex in the America's at that time, the builders inexplicably started abandoning it around 600 CE when the Toltecs had started migrating into the Mexico Valley, and it was completely abandoned by 800 CE. The Aztecs militarily conquered the Mexico Valley, according to their own history, in 1325, more than 500 years after the builders had left the Mexico Valley.
We do not know the language the builders spoke or the names they used for the pyramids. As the conquerors, the Aztecs named the complex and pyramids from their own language. “Teotihuacan” literally means “City of the Gods” in Aztec. The nomadic Aztecs who had very little civilization imagined that the builders must have been gods. This is not necessarily the builders' name for the exquisite complex.
Brent Raynes: Who were the Olmecs and what do we know about them?
Krsanna Duran: The Olmec had arrived in Mexico by 3000 BCE and left sometime during the 1st century BCE. Early researchers in Mexico did not know the Olmecs had existed until the late 19th and early 20th century, when their huge sculptures that had been pirated from undiscovered sites began appearing on the art market.
Former astronaut Gordon Cooper worked for NASA diving for artifacts on a sunken Olmec settlement in the Gulf of Mexico and then discovered an Olmec pyramid on the Gulf coast at Tampico, etc.
Brent Raynes: What is the message of Teotihuacan?
Krsanna Duran: Peter Tompkins called it a cosmic university with key markers for all the planets of the inner solar system. Only one major piece of literature associated with Teotihuacan, the Borgia Codex, survived the Spanish inquisition in the 16th century. The Borgia Codex dealt primarily with ritual in contrast to the Maya codices that were essentially calendar almanacs. Teotihuacan was the initiation center for the Feathered Serpent, Quetzalcoatl, where he first emerged with a full collar of feathers. The message of Teotihuacan is certainly entwined with the Feathered Serpent's tradition and the extraordinary standard measure throughout the complex.
Brent Raynes: What was Teotihuacan's measure?
Krsanna Duran: Problems finding a standard measure, until American engineer Hugh Harleston used maps from an aerial survey done in the 1960s. He found that the resolved based measure was the twelfth root of 2, which is the basis of Western music. This standard and markers for positions of planets in the solar system point to a Music of the Spheres theorem and harmonic unity of the Cosmos. In its most direct form, this expresses the Law of One that Edgar Cayce spoke about and Helena Blavatsky's mahatma wrote about in 1882 as the fundamental principle of their philosophy.
This standard measure is consistent throughout the complex, but anthropologists of the old school could not believe the ancient builders knew. However, the Olmec were master mathematicians who invented zero in Mexico circa 300 BCE. Zero with the same dot-bar number system used in Mexico appeared in Hindu temples at around the same time. The Arabs acquired zero from Hindu temples and introduced it in Europe circa 1,000 CE, or 1,300 years after it was used in Mexico. Gordon Cooper's observation that the Olmec used the same celestial navigation symbols as those used in Egypt and Crete in the same period, or 5,000 years ago (3000 BCE) cast new light on what the ancient builders at Teotihuacan knew by way of demonstrated knowledge.